Chum Kiu (尋橋) - Introduction
The second form in the Wing Chun System is called Chum Kiu and roughly translated it means "Seeking for the bridge or bridge seeking form."
Chum Kiu teaches the student how to turn and move efficiently which helps to develop a student's weight transfer, weight distribution, balance and structure. With simultaneous hand and foot movements, the form helps a student to link the upper and lower body together using the Gee Kim Yeung Ma stance which was learnt in Sil Lim Tau. Due to the stepping footwork in Chum Kiu, the form applies the Gee Kim Yeung Ma stance with the feet in a forward stance instead of a neutral position.
By learning how turn yourself correctly and efficiently, helps in detecting the slightest opening in which to compromise an opponent's position by interrupting their centre and turning your opponent. Chum Kiu is predominantly known as the footwork or form. Chum Kiu builds on the core concepts that are taught in Sil Lim Tau, and teaches the student intermediate positions, energies and techniques.
Chum Kiu introduces four further angles which are the angles that are lie in-between the four angles that are taught in Sil Lim Tau, therefore you now have 8 angles in which to defend and or attack. The form introduces the use of kicks, which when applied are no higher than your waist, any higher is deemed as inefficient. Also highlighted within the Chum Kiu is the concept of distance, which is governed by footwork.
At Progressive Wing Chun Milton Keynes you will find that on average students start to learn this form after 3 to 6 months of training.
Chum Kiu - Understanding
First Section - Juun - Turning
The first section of Chum Kiu focuses on turning, weight transfer and distribution, balance and structure. Again there is the application of double Lan Sau and a new technique which is Fut Sau (eye rake) which is derived from pressure being applied on the elbow.
The application of Jip Sau (arm break) is introduced and is made up of simultaneous Tok Sau and Jut Sau being applied to an opponent's arm. The first section introduces the importance of peripheral vision as you face multiple directions within whilst turning.
The last part of the section utilises Bong Sau and Lan Sau. This shows the relationship of Bong Sau and Lan Sau. This shows the importance of turning when performing Bong Sau and the Lan Sau is performed in such a way that it shows how to drive in and close an opponent down pinning an opponent(s) arm to their body.
Pay attention to the position of Lan Sau as this is a distance reference point of the practitioner, both from defence and attack points of view, after all the best form of defence is attack! The first section of Chum Kiu also further develops two-way energy and short range power which is what was taught in the second and third sections of Sil Lim Tau.
Second Section - Ser - Deflect
The second section of Chum Kiu opens with a Wing Chun rising punch, followed by a turn in to a Lan Sau with the hand in a fist, this can also be seen as a reverse Poi Jarn, this section also introduces kicks which are applied no higher than the waist of an opponent. Kicks can be used to warn off opponents, to step in and bridge the gap or to attack and gain contact of your opponent hence the forms name "seeking the bridge." Distance is the key when ever using kicking techniques.
This section shows the student the Wing Chun stepping technique which uses the front Gee Kim Yeung Ma stance and the stepping is called Biu Ma (thrusting step). The stepping teaches the student to learn the timing between hand and feet techniques thus learning how to move as a single unit. It is very important that the student's body all moves as one unit, as you are then able to root to the ground and have a good structure and maintain your balance, as you may become vulnerable if your legs move slightly before your hands or vice versa as this could telegraph your movements or make you become unstable. The Biu Ma is performed with a Bong Sau focusing on deflecting the incoming strike.
Once you have understood and learnt how to move as a single unit you can then move the upper and lower body independently which prepares you for the next form Biu Gee. Pay close attention to the resting position between the Bong Sau's in this section as this is seen that if you have had your wrist or hand trapped; you are still able to use your elbow, which some refer to as the "emergency Bong Sau." The last part of this section closes with you turning and correcting you centre line from Bong Sau in to another rising punch, or Jum Sau and again turning square and correcting your centre line.
The third section of Chum Kiu opens with a turn followed by a crescent kick, again as with all kicks this is to highlight that there may be a distance between you and an opponent therefore the kick is to close this distance or warn off and create distance. This section focuses on force and pressure as you move forward you apply a low double Bong Sau position which is applied with tension/energy, before moving into a relaxed low double Tan Sau position. This shows the difference between tensed and relaxed limbs, as a tense arm has to relax before movement can be freely applied.
The energy of the low Bong Sau is delivered forward and not down, i.e. driving force forwards and this is shown when using Bong Sau to jam or pin and opponents arm(s) much like Lan Sau. The application of the low Bong Sau is tense because there is more of the body to protect and if it were applied against a strike in a relaxed form, your arm would simply collapse and your whole body structure can be easily interrupted and position compromised - See Bong Sau. The low Tan Sau which is applied after the low Bong Sau is relaxed to show you that from a relaxed position you can quickly apply tension as and when required. This is the same theory as in the third section of Sil Lim Tao. The section is completed with a double Huen Sau and Double Palm strike.
The second part of this section opens up with an 180˚ turn to the right hand side. This teaches you how to turn whilst re-distributing your weight, re-grounding the structure and maintaining balance. More importantly, turning whilst keeping you head back.
Once you have completed this section you then turn 45˚ to the left and apply a kick out to the side whilst turning square; this can be used to correct your centre or apply a kick to attack an opponent who is slightly off centre. The three Gum Sau / Wu Sau movement at the end of the form shows how to turn the body and block simultaneously, which is the implied footwork from the Sil Lim Tao form. This also demonstrates efficiency as the last Gum Sau moves directly in to a punch followed by 4 further punches i.e. five Chain Punches.
This completes Chum Kiu.
Chum Kiu Builds on Sil Lim Tau.
Progressive Wing Chun Milton Keynes students will then move on to the third form is Biu Gee, amongst other things this introduces the student to advanced energies and positions.